Ved tynning og gjødsling kan andelen sagtømmer i det hogstmodne bestandet øke, og samtidig kan tynning være ønskelig for å lage stabile bestand som kan overholdes utover normal hogstmodenhetsalder. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. Ferretti, M., Calderisi, M., Marchetto, A., Waldner, P., Thimonier, A., Jonard, M., Cools, N., Rautio, P., Clarke, N., Hansen, K., Merilä, P. P., Žlindra, D., Clarke, N., Verstraeten, A., Lazdins, A., Schimming, C., Iacoban, C., Lindroos, A., Vanguelova, E., Benham, S., Meesenburg, H., Nicolas, M., Kowalska, A., Apuhtin, V., Napa, U., Lachmanová, Z., Kristoefel, F., Bleeker, A., Ingerslev, M., Vesterdal, L., Molina, J., Fischer, U., Seidling, W., Jonard, M., O'Dea, P., Johnson, J., Fischer, R. How should intellectual property rights be protected, while improving access to data? Which quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures have been used and for how long? toalett hekte kit Based on intensive forest monitoring data, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication as well as their exceeedances were modelled for 107 Level II plots using the simple mass balance approach.
Uttak av hogstrester (GROT) gir råstoff til bioenergi, som kan brukes til å erstatte fossile brensler. G., Etzold, S., Schmitt, M., Marchetto, A., Rautio, P., Derome, K., Nieminen, T. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concen- tration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. Dynamic modelling using the VSD model was carried out for 77 plots using different deposition scenarios.
Despite decreased deposition, TIN output fluxes and retention rates showed a mixed response with both decreasing (9 sites) and increasing (8 sites) trend slopes, and trends were rarely significant. doi: 10.1080/02827581.2017.1337921Stupak, I., Kvist-Johannsen, V., Nord-Larsen, T., Vesterdal, L., Callesen, I., Suadicani, K., Schou, E., Björheden, R., Asikainen, A., Clarke, N. Relatively large differences in findings between studies underline the importance of local contextual knowledge about landscape values and how people use the particular landscape where different forms of bioenergy production will occur. Om lag 29 % av skogen som avvirkes, hogges før hogstmodenhetsalder. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. For stem-only harvesting (SOH) and whole-tree harvesting where slash had been piled (WTH pile), concentrations of nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium peaked in the second year after harvesting and again, but lower, in the third. Many fungi lower substrate p H by secreting oxalic acid, its conjugate base oxalate being a reductant as well as a chelating agent for cations.
In general, TIN was strongly retained in the catchments not affected by natural disturbances. One size does not fit all: climate, N deposition and forest management in Norway (Lecture). This scientific knowledge may be used to formulate guiding principles for visual management of boreal forest bioenergy landscapes. S., Stålnacke, P., Tesfai, M., Sørlie, H., Edvardsen, M. Av dette arealet utgjør hogstklasse IV 25 %, mens hogstklasse III eller yngre utgjør 4 %. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH- pile and WTH-removal areas). Carriero, G., Tuovinen, J., Clarke, N., Matteucci, G., Matyssek, R., Wieser, G., Mikkelsen, T. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43026Camino-Serrano, M., Gielen, B., Luyssaert, S., Ciais, P., Vicca, S., Guenet, B., Vos, B.d., Cools, N., Ahrens, B., Arain, M. Ammonium concentrations peaked in the year after harvesting. No increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon were observed. Evaluation of site impact after harvesting in steep terrain with excavator assisted ground based harvesting systems (Lecture). To examine the role of oxalic acid in pathogenicity of white-rot fungi, we conducted spatial quantification of oxalate, transcript levels of related fungal genes, and element concentrations in heartwood of Norway spruce challenged naturally by Heterobasidion parviporum.
Large differences in the input and output fluxes of SO4 and TIN reflect important gradients of air pollution effects in Europe, with the highest deposition and runoff water fluxes at IM sites located in southern Scandinavia and in parts of Central and Eastern Europe and the lowest fluxes at more remote sites in northern European regions. Climate-Smart Agriculture and Adaptation to Climate Change: Case Studies from China (Lecture). We review forest preference research carried out in Finland, Sweden and Norway, and discuss these findings in relation to bioenergy production in boreal forest ecosystems. Cools, N., Verstraeten, A., Weis, W., Carnicelli, S., Cecchini, G., Clarke, N., Pannatier, E. Environmental variables (topographical, soil physical, soil chemical, and tree variables) were recorded only once; before WTH and SOH. Det er på ingen måte noen uttømmende oversikt over klimatiltak, men dekker et utvalg som det var ønske om å belyse nærmere. There are many factors affecting soil C content and thus accounting for the observed differences, including temperature, moisture content, and harvesting type.
A significant decrease in the total (wet dry) deposition of non-marine SO4 and bulk deposition of TIN was found at 90% and 65% of the sites, respectively. Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.20Mei, X., Dong, H., Li, Y., Clarke, N., Gong, D., Hao, W., Li, Y., Liu, B., Ma, X. International Conference on Climate Change, Water, Agriculture and Food Security, ICRISAT Campus, Hyderabad. Combating climate change: developing sustainable intensive farming systems in China. Combating climate change: developing sustainable intensive farming systems in China. Some production methods and related operations incur negative reactions among the public, e.g. G., Johnson, J., Jonard, M., Meesenburg, H., Nieminen, T. Effec ts of WTH and SOH on ground vegetation biodiversity and cover are presented. En vurdering av utvalgte skogtiltak - innspill på veien mot Lavutslippssamfunnet 2050. Disse er belyst nærmere med hovedvekt på karbonopptak og –lagring. online dating god første datoen Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type. doi: 10.1002/2013GB004726Wang, Y., Haugslien, S., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Øgaard, A. Variation in the results obtained may depend on site-specific factors such as site nutrient status, especially with regard to the most common limiting nutrient nitrogen, which will affect growth in the next rotation.
Verstraeten, A., Gottardini, E., Vanguelova, E., Waldner, P., Bruffaerts, N., Nussbaumer, A., Neumann, M., Clarke, N., Hansen, K., Rautio, P. 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, København. Guidelines for sustainable forest harvesting residue removals: An international review (Lecture). The main rationale of this work package is to support the development of coherent national and (sub)regional policies promoting the sustainable production and consumption of bioenergy.
Governing sustainability of bioenergy, biomaterial and bioproduct supply chains from forest and agricultural landscapes, København. Establishing a link between pollen dispersal, seed production and throughfall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux in temperate forests (Lecture). P., Nair, S., Nichiforel, L., Palviainen, M., Stanturf, J., Schaubach, K., Tilvikiene, V., Titus, B., Thrän, D., Ukonmaanaho, L. Key messages from a conference on state of the art and future prospects (Lecture). gratis datingside i colorado springs This report has been prepared in the frame of Work Package 3 (Policy) of the Interreg IVB project Bioenergy Promotion.
I følge resultatkontrollen i 2013 hadde 29 % av det totale foryngelsesarealet et plantetall under anbefalt nivå i bærekraftforskriften. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. Wang, Y., Haugslien, S., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Øgaard, A. The excess level of cations in defense xylem inactivates pathogen-secreted oxalate through precipitation and, presumably, only after cation neutralization can oxalic acid participate in lignocellulose degradation. Availability, accessibility, quality and comparability of monitoring data for European forests for use in air pollution and climate change science.Framskrivningene av skogbestokningen viser at en fortsettelse av dagens praksis på årlig foryngelsesareal fra 2015 og frem til 2100 akkumulert gir 83,5 millioner tonn CO2 lavere opptak enn om arealet hadde vært plantet med anbefalt tetthet. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems (Poster). The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil tem- peratures following harvest. Forest Soil C-sink Nordic Network – FSC-sink (Lecture). This necessitates enhanced production of oxalic acid by H. This study is the first to determine the true influence of white-rot fungi on oxalate crystal formation in tree xylem. D., Lundin, L., Papale, D., Vesala, T., Merilä, P., Matteucci, G., Mirtl, M., Simpson, D. i Forest : Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4: 162-166.Høyere plantetetthet gir også økt mulighet for å ta ut virke gjennom tynning. Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services, København. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. Soil carbon sequestration in Nordic forestry: influences of changed land-use and management (Lecture). Adapting to Change: From Research to Decision-making. doi: 10.3832/ifor0582-004 psych tegn dating Data from existing monitoring programmes such as ICP Forests, ICP Integrated Monitoring and EMEP, as well as from large-scale international projects such as Carbo Europe IP and Nitro Europe, can be used to answer questions about the impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems and the feedbacks of forest to climate.At 10–20 cm, ANC increased in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation 4.5). Can forest harvesting for bioenergy be done sustainably? Sustainable Bioenergy Development: One Size Does Not Fit All, Oslo. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography. Rhizosphere citrate and malate showed negative and positive correlations (P Schmitz, A., Hansen, K., Michel, A., Prescher, A., Sanders, T. Long-term sulphate and inorganic nitrogen mass balance budgets in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments (1990–2012). doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.20 tre i en seng datingside Empirical evidence based on integrated environmental monitoring including physical, chemical and biological variables is essential for evaluating the ecosystem benefits of costly emission reduction policies. Contrasting impact of whole-tree-harvesting on chemical quality of plant foliage in coastal versus inland forest. Modelling climate change effects on the chlorine cycle in a Norway spruce forest soil (Lecture). Network “Effects of bioenergy production from forests and agriculture on ecosystem services in Nordic and Baltic landscapes” (Lecture). The effects of rhizosphere organic anions varied among species and they appeared to play minor roles in improving P availability and uptake. Differences between the two harvesting methods at both sites were mainly due to the residue piles assembled during whole-tree harvesting and the physical damage made during the harvesting of residues in these piles. speed dating london sylteagurk Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services: Climate change adaptation and mitigation, water protection, biodiversity conservation, and soil quality maintenance, University of Copenhagen. I., Nordbakken, J., Lange, H., Røsberg, I., Kjønaas, O. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation have been investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern east and western Norway, respectively, differing in climate and topography. Some studies have shown that this increase is short-lived, while others have found a longer-term increase.In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al tot either did not change or decreased. nye dating-nettsteder som knusk Air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems: evidence for effects, adaptation, and mitigation. G., Seidling, W., Clarke, N., Verstraeten, A., Karlsson, G. Inorganic nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems in Europe - spatial patterns and temporal changes in the past 15 years (Lecture). Vuorenmaa, J., Augustaitis, A., Beudert, B., Clarke, N., Wit, H.d., Dirnböck, T., Frey, J., Forsius, M., Indriksone, I., Kleemola, S., Kobler, J., Kram, P., Lindroos, A., Lundin, L., Ruoho-Airola, T., Ukonmaanaho, L. The international multidisciplinary ICP IM (International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems) programme studies the integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on ecosystems in unmanaged and calibrated forested catchments. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(6): 541-545. Effects of bioenergy extraction on visual preferences in boreal forests: a review of surveys from Finland, Sweden and Norway. ICP Forests Executive Report, 5-9.: 5Clarke, N., Lachmanová, Z. Tracing air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems: trend and risk assessments, Luxembourg. SNS and NKJ Matchmaking Day For Forestry, Agriculture, Environment and the Energy Sectors, Vantaa.Økland, T. The presence of the residue piles had a clear negative impact on both species numbers and cover. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvest, SOH), leaving harvest residues spread on the site,or WTH was carried out, with the residues collected into piles at the site for six - nine months prior to removal. Unsurprisingly, thinning appears to affect the soil carbon content much less than clear-cutting; the effect tends to be proportional to the thinning intensity.Trends were evaluated for monthly concentrations of non-marine (anthropogenic fraction, denoted as x) sulphate (x SO4) and base cations x(Ca Mg), hydrogen ion (H ), inorganic N (NO3 and NH4) and ANC (Acid Neutralising Capacity) and their respective fluxes into and out of the catchments and for monthly precipitation, runoff and air temperature. M., Sawicka, K., Seidling, W., Thimonier, A., Vanguelova, E., Verstraeten, A., Vesterdal, L. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish consistent trends in soil solution DOC, whereas increasing concentrations in European surface waters over the past decades appear to be the norm, possibly as a result of recovery from acidification. Investment support needs to be continued, at least at present levels.A significant decrease of x SO4 deposition resulted in decreases in concentrations and fluxes of x SO4 in runoff, being significant at 90% and 60% of the sites, respectively. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests. doi: 10.5194/bg-2015-632Camino-Serrano, M., Pannatier, E. G., Vicca, S., Luyssaert, S., Jonard, M., Ciais, P., Guenet, B., Gielen, B., Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Waldner, P., Etzold, S., Cecchini, G., Clarke, N., Galic, Z., Gandois, L., Hansen, K., Johnson, J., Klinck, U., Lachmanová, Z., Lindroos, A., Meesenburg, H., Nieminen, T. The objectives of this study were therefore to understand the long-term trends of soil solution DOC from a large number of European forests (ICP Forests Level II plots) and determine their main physico-chemical and biological controls. The main bottlenecks for increased use of bioenergy in Norway are economic, so economic support is necessary.Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests moni- toring network were used. Effects of forest residue harvesting on short-term changes in soil solution chemistry. Impact of phosphorus on rhizosphere organic anions of wheat at different growth stages under field conditions. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plx008 farene ved dating en bipolar mann Phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting factors for crop productivity while rhizosphere organic anions have been hypothesized to play an important role in P acquisition. Short-term ecological consequences of removal of harvesting residues for bioenergy from forests in Norway (Lecture). Short-term effects of whole-tree harvesting on understory plant species diversity and cover in two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway. Short–term effects of whole–tree harvesting on understory plant species diversity and cover in two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway (Lecture). Tracing air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems: trend and risk assessments, Luxembourg. In conclusion, long-term trends of soil solution DOC reflected the interactions between controls acting at local (soil and vegetation properties) and regional (atmospheric deposition of SO42− and inorganic N) scales. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. Removing forest harvesting residuals: effects on biodiversity and species composition in Norwegian forests (Poster). Some changes are necessary to take account of specific conditions e.g. For example, it is stated in Point 4 of Article 17 of the Renewable Energy Directive that biofuels and bioliquids shall not be obtained from land that was continuously forested in January 2008 and is no longer continuously forested. Also, in Point C7 of Annex V, the 20-year period for calculating carbon stock changes is completely unrealistic for forestry (although this refers to land-use change and it could be argued that felling is not land-use change if the land is used for forest afterwards; this should be clarified).Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10– 20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40–80 cm, 162 plots). Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(3): 299-307. Sampling in a long-term field experiment was carried out in order to understand the impact of long-term differences in P fertilization on secretion of organic anions under field conditions. Rhizosphere Organic Anions Play a Minor Role in Improving Crop Species' Ability to Take Up Residual Phosphorus (P) in Agricultural Soils Low in P Availability. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01664 gratis topp datingside Many arable lands have accumulated large reserves of residual phosphorus (P) and a relatively large proportion of soil P is less available for uptake by plants. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, RAI Amsterdam Exhibition and Convention Centre, Amsterdam. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(8): 766-776. Short-term effects of wood ash return to forest (Poster). Landscape management and design for food, bioenergy and the bioeconomy: methodology and governance aspects, Gøteborg. Win RHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. These aspects of the Renewable Energy Directive are already problematic if forest biomass is to be used for biofuels or bioliquids.The results suggest a long-time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long-term monitor- ing in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition. P., Žlindra, D., Vesterdal, L., Benham, S., Elustondo, D., Nicolas, M., Waldner, P. We calculated site-specific annual input-output budgets for sulphate (SO4) and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN NO3- N NH4-N) for 17 European ICP IM sites in 1990–2012. Conflicting interests of ecosystem services: Multi-criteria modelling and indirect evaluation of trade-offs between monetary and non-monetary measures. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.20Fjære, S., Clarke, N., Nybakken, L. doi: 10.1080/02827581.2016.1141231Gundersen, V., Clarke, N., Dramstad, W. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(3): 323-334. I., Nordbakken, J., Lange, H., Røsberg, I., Kjønaas, O. Pile residue harvesting on unfrozen and snow-free soil caused more damage to the forest floor in the steep terrain at the western site compared to the eastern site. Vegetation plots in the eastern site were established and analysed before WTH and SOH in 2008 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2010, 20. online andakter for unge dating par Miljødirektoratet utarbeidet i 2014 et kunnskapsgrunnlag for hvordan vi kan omstille Norge til et lavutslippssamfunn (Miljødirektoratet 2014). Denne rapporten er en del av neste fase av dette arbeidet, som er å utdype analysen av mulige tiltak og virkemidler. Molecular and biochemical analysis of plant root exudates response to phosphorus starvation (Lecture). Wang, Y., Haugslien, S., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Øgaard, A. The soil carbon content appears to be higher after selection cutting than after clear-cutting.Clarke, N., Fjellstad, W., Nordbakken, J., Økland, T. Temporal trends for input (deposition) and output (runoff water) fluxes and the net retention/net release of SO4 and TIN were also analysed. doi: 10.1080/02827581.2015.1099725 dating royal albert kina Increased forest biomass production for bioenergy will have various consequences for landscape scenery, depending on both the landscape features present and the character and intensity of the silvicultural and harvesting methods used. In the western site vegetation plots were established before WTH and SOH in 2010 and reanalysed after harvesting in 20 (and planned for 2016). Pre-as well as post-harvesting species abundances of all species in each vegetation plot were each time recorded as percentage cover (vertical projection) and subplot frequency. Her beskriver vi, på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet, et utvalg klimatiltak i skog. Studies comparing effects of whole-tree harvest with those of stem-only harvest have tended to show smaller carbon contents in the mineral soil after whole-tree harvest than after stem-only harvest, although once again results vary greatly.