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But despite the apparent lack of specific cases in which a translator was held liable as a result of an incorrect or inadequate translation, there are numerous instances ‑ relating to translation in general and technical translation in particular ‑ which illustrate the potential consequences of substandard translations.Taken from a variety of sources, these instances show, not only the impact of translation errors, but also the potential directions from which claims against a translator may come.In 1999, Ansaldi conducted a review of federal and state court rulings in the US spanning the preceding ten years but failed to find a single court case or ruling in which a translator was found liable as a result of a poor translation.Similar searches covering 20 years of articles in legal journals failed to uncover any article on the issue.Signed on the 12th October 1929, the Convention was originally drafted in French, a single copy of which is stored in the archives of the Polish .

Despite notable works on legal translation such as Alcaraz and Hughes (2002), Morris (1995) and Šarčević (2000), little is known about a translator's legal obligations or responsibilities.Given the huge volume of translation work done in so many different areas across the world this is quite surprising and it is particularly true in the case of technical translation which, according to Kingscott (207) accounts for some 90% of the world's total annual translation output.It would be unrealistic to interpret this lack of cases as proof that translators do not make mistakes or that the issue of translator liability is not something with which we should concern ourselves.In order for the provisions of the Convention to be adopted into English law in the form of the , being to make an "exact translation" which the translator failed to do.By adding glosses to the text and by clarifying and disambiguating the source text, the translator "produced certainty where there was ambiguity: and clarity where there was obscurity" ().This paper aims to show that, despite the lack of precedents, the possibility of being found liable for one's translations is very real and the implications of substandard translations must be treated seriously.The sheer volume and diversity of translation work which takes place throughout the world each year means that there are potentially dozens, if not hundreds, of possible implications for defective translations.This paper will attempt to answer these questions by outlining some of the key legal instruments which affect translation and, by means of several case studies, illustrate the legal, financial and safety implications – both real and potential – of inappropriate, incorrect, ambiguous or otherwise defective translations.Using a number of case studies gathered from official reports and communications, court records, newspaper articles and books the paper will illustrate the diversity of situations which can arise as a result of translation errors.This paper will show that translation error, as a whole, can have significant consequences for both translator and client and by examining a number of case studies gathered from official reports and communications, court records, newspaper articles and books it will illustrate the diversity of situations which can arise as a result of translation errors.The paper will then examine the issues of liability and negligence to illustrate the legal means by which translators can be held accountable for the quality of their work.

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